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September 16

Compiled and Written by Irene Stuber
who is solely responsible for its content.
This version of Women of Achievement has been taken
from the 1998 email distribution of Women of Achievement and Herstory.
The full text of this episode of Women of Achievement and Herstory
will be published here in the future.

Karen Danielssen Horney, rebel psychoanalyst

Anne Bradstreet, "a proper wife and mother"


QUOTE by Nadia Boulanger.

Psychoanalyst Who Called for Alterations in Phallocentric Psychology

B. 09-16-1885, Karen Danielssen Horney, German-born American psychoanalyst who called for alterations in the phallocentric psychology, male-biased view of feminine psychology.
      She broke with Freudian theory in a series of articles from 1926 1932 which posited that much of women's psychiatric problems emanated from the male-dominated culture women were subject to and not "penis envy." She stressed that humans had security needs that were more vital to them than the sexual and aggressive drive. As a consequence the New York Psychoanalytic Institution disqualified her for challenging the Freudian view that women were "failed" men.
      KDH, with others, formed the Association for the Advancement of Psychoanalysis, (1941) a major force in revitalizing psychology, and she formed the prestigious Karen Horney Clinic in New York City.
      Her thoughts have drastically realigned psychiatry without formal notice being made of the changes.
      In a series of papers written in the 1920s and 1930s on female psychology and sexuality, Horney rejected Freud's views with its emphasis on castration, female inferiority, and the primacy of "penis envy" in the psychosexual development of women.
      Horney insisted that female psychosexual development must be viewed on its own terms rather than as derivative of male development, Horney affirmed the special function of womanhood - childbearing, nursing, and motherhood - as positive and fulfilling in themselves; she also suggested that men secretly envied these activities with an attitude writers later termed "womb-envy." During the period of her own marital separation and its after effects, Horney also wrote a series of important papers on marital problems and the relations between the sexes.
      During her marriage, Horney continued her education. She earned her M.D. and her Ph.D. during the period her three daughters were born. An anti-Nazi, she left Germany in 1932 finally making it to New York in 1934. She formally broke with the Freudians with her books The Neurotic Personality of Our Times (1937) and New Ways in Psychoanalysis (1939).
      She was more or less booted out of the New York Psychoanalytic Institute along with Clara Thompson, Erich Fromm, and Harry Stock Sullivan for her views that differed from the strict Freudian doctrine.
      Her two other major books emphasized her theories that sociocultural factors were the main cause of neurosis. Her influence has continued to grow after her death and many of her then-radical theories have entered the mainstream of psychology. She was a feminist who believed in the equality of the sexes.
      Her mother supported her wish for education while her patriarchal father believed a woman's place was in the home where she was to be passive and obedient.
      Jack L. Rubins wrote the biography Karen Horney: Gentle Rebel of Psychoanalysis (1978).

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America's First Woman Poet

Died 09-16-1672, Anne Bradstreet, American Colonial poet.

Nay, Masculines, you have thus tax'd us long,
Let such, as say our sex is void of reason,
'tis a slander now, but once was treason...
She (Elizabeth I) has wip'd off th' aspersions of her Sex
That woman wisdom lack to play the Rex.

      Most biographers refer to Anne Bradstreet as a proper wife and mother of the colonial times before the American revolutionary. They conveniently ignore such verses as shown above which are feminist by any standards.
      The forward of a slim volume of poems entitled The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung Up in America first published in London in 1650 reads,
"These poems are the fruit but of some few hours curtailed from sleep and other refreshments" and stresses that the writer is virtuous, and assures people on the word of a gentleman that the writer is actually, of all things, a WOMAN.
      Thus, the poems of Anne Bradstreet, America's first woman poet were first published - without her permission and without her knowledge.
      English-born about 1612 and raised in great comfort and social position with access to a large library, AB along with her husband were in the first group of John Winthrop's English settlers in Massachusetts. She was 18 when she arrived. Her husband was the colony's assistant governor.
      Even enduring the unbelievably the rough life of a woman in the early colonies while bearing and raising eight children, she somehow she managed to write. Most of her poems are conventional for the times but her later works showed great development. Her better poems were not printed until well after her death.
      For two centuries she was treated with a slight disdain by male critics who considered her
"only of historical consideration," but in the later 20th century which also saw Emily Dickinson rise to preeminence, AB's work was reexamined with new eyes (feminist) and found worthy.
      One may only wonder how good she could have been without the burden of motherhood, wifehood, and back- breaking work of a colonial homemaker that killed most women in their early 20s. And, of course, the doctrine of the Puritan which did not approve of individual thought - especially by a woman.
"To have written these, the first good poems in America, while rearing eight children, lying frequently sick, keeping house at the edge of wilderness, was to have managed a poet s range and extension within confines as severe as any American poet has confronted."
            -- Adrienne Rich

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B. 09-16-1812, Anna Louisa Geertrude Bosboom-Toussaint, Dutch writer of historical and romantic fiction, and avid feminist. Her historically important Leicester series was published 1846-1855.

B. 09-16-1852, Emilia Pardo Bazan, Countess (condesa) de, Spanish author of novels, short stories, and literary criticism who was awarded the singular honor of being named chair of literature at the University of Madrid. Her husband left her because he was scandalized (sic!) by her fame. She championed the free will of the individual.

B. 09-16-1871, Ella Phillips Crandall, who through her influential teaching and hard work raised public health nursing to a respected professional level. After several administrative positions after her training as a nurse, she headed the critical visiting nurses service of Lillian Wald's Henry Street Settlement in New York City.
      She served on several boards and organizations which in 1912 developed into the National Organization for Public Health Nursing which she headed as executive secretary for eight years. It was eight years of traveling as she rallied nurses from all over who so often worked in isolated conditions. From 1927 to her death in 1938 she served as the head of the philanthropic Payne Fund which supported educational research.

B. 09-16-1887, Nadia Boulanger, French composer, conductor, and music teacher. She was called "the greatest music teacher in the world" by Virgil Thomson. NB was the first woman to conduct the Boston Symphony (1938), the Royal Philharmonic (1937), and the Philadelphia Orchestra (1938).
      NB was recognized by even the most male centrist interests as the most influential teacher of musical composition of the 20th century. In addition to Thomson, she taught Thea Musgrave, Aaron Copeland, Ray Harris, Lennox Berkeley, Elliott Carter, David Diamond, Darius Milhaud, Walter Piston, and her younger sister Lili Boulanger - one of her first pupils - who became the first woman to win the Grand Prix de Rome.
      ND abandoned her personal career as a composer because she felt her works were not inspired and said her sister was the true artist of the family. ND published some short works and in 1908 won second prize in the Prix de Rome competition for her cantata La Sirene (The Siren).
      As a teacher Boulanger developed her students' aesthetic values and their individual talents rather than just teaching theory. Not only were her theories unorthodox, but her framework was also.
      She was not allowed to teach music or composition by the conservatory. She had to enroll her students in a piano course during which she taught them composition.
      Thea Musgrave, the much acclaimed Scot orchestral and chamber music composer and conductor studied with Nadia Boulanger (1950-54) privately and as a conservatoire student in Paris.
      "The distinguished Nadia Boulanger was not allowed to teach composition at the Paris Conservatoire because they (the conservatoire management) had a rule that only composers could teach composition. So one of the greatest teachers of the century could not teach at the conservatory, except for piano accompaniment," said Musgrave who went on to explain, "[Boulanger's class really] wasn't the piano accompaniment class; we never did any accompanying on the piano, but it was so much more. We did score reading, figured bass, transposition, and, of course, Stravinsky; it was a wonderful general music education."
      From 1921 NB was associated with the Conservatoire Americain (American Conservatory) at Fontainebleau, becoming director in 1950. During World War II she taught at Radcliffe and Wellesley colleges in Massachusetts. She appeared as organ soloist in the premiere of Copland's 'Organ Symphony' in 1925. Her career spanned 70 years.
      Her reply to a Boston newspaperman's seeking her reaction in 1938 to being the first woman to conduct the Boston Symphony,
      "I've been a woman for a little more than 50 years, and I've gotten over my original astonishment."

B. 09-16-1887, Louise Arner Boyd, American geographer who led eight arctic expeditions. A part of Greenland was named after her. In 1960 became the first woman councilor in the 108-year history of the American Geographical Society.
      During World War II she became a valued, and irreplaceable technical expert with the War Department by utilizing her encyclopedic scientific knowledge, her experiences, and her thousands of maps, and photographs of the entire Arctic region from Greenland to Scandinavia.
      She was indispensable in locating little-known fjords which had became safe havens for German U-boats. LAB was the first woman to fly over the North Pole. LAB wrote several authoritative books on the arctic.

B. 09-16-1891, Maud Worcester Makemson, chair of the department of astronomy at Vassar. Primarily a self-taught astronomer, she worked to support her several children and was was still able to get her B. A. degree at age 34 and her Ph.D. at 39. MWM authored The Morning Star Rises explaining Polynesian astronomy navigation that allowed them to travel throughout the Pacific by apparently primitive navigational aides that turned out to be extremely sophisticated but simple.

B. 09-16-1903, Gwen Bristow, U.S. novelist and journalist best known for her Plantation Trilogy and This Side of Glory. Her writings feature strong women equal to the challenges of the western frontier and other difficult experiences.

B. 09-16-1904, Germaine Richier, French sculptor who used open structural forms in her expressions of somber emotion.

B. 09-16-1924, Lauren Bacall, model, film and stage actress, and writer - and national icon. LB won the 1970 Tony Award for her work in the musical Applause. She wrote several autobiographies beginning with the best-selling Lauren Bacall by Myself (1978).
      An ingenue, she shot into film stardom opposite the much older Humphrey Bogart whom she married. She developed into a fine actor and her personal dignity through the years has made her a much respected and loved figure.

B. 09-16-1934, Eva M. Clayton, was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives from Georgia 1992 . She was the founder of a management consulting firm for economic development.

B. 09-16-1948, Rosemary Casals, U.S. professional tennis player.

B. 09-16-1950, Jo Ann Emerson, elected to fill the seat of her late husband to the U.S. House of Representatives from Missouri. She has been reelected on her own merits.

Event 09-16-1978: After years of condemnation, the Episcopal Church officially recognized the ordination of the 15 women priests who had previously been ordained by consecrated bishops without the hierarchy's official approval.

DIED 09-16-1994, Felisa Rincón de Gautier (Doña Fela) who was the leader in the campaign for Puerto Rican women's suffrage in 1932. She had to leave school at 15 to care for her siblings, although her father was a well-to-do attorney who could afford household help.
      She rose to become the popular mayor of San Juan (1946-60) with adequate child care as one of her many socially caring programs. At age 95 she represented Puerto Rico at the democratic convention in New York City.

Event 09-16-1995, Lynn Hill climbs the "nose" of Yosemite's El Capitan with her bare hands. She carries a rope to catch her in case she falls. The world champion rock climber commented: "Society's contrived image of what a woman should be is something I've never agreed with."

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Nadia Boulanger's 1938 reply to a Boston newspaperman who sought her reaction to getting the men musicians' respect as being the first woman to conduct the Boston Symphony:
      "I've been a woman for a little more than 50 years, and I've gotten over my original astonishment."
            (The music world was agog that when she originally stood on the podium of an American orchestra, the male musicians treated her with thinly veiled contempt. However, because of her obvious musicianship and penetrating personality, the attitude soon turned to respect and adoration.)

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