| PRIOR DATE |        | HOME |       | WOA INDEX |       | NEXT DATE |

September 28

Compiled and Written by Irene Stuber
who is solely responsible for its content.

Some 1970s Milestones


Helen of Troy

Chimp Females in Charge

Woman - Which Includes Man, Of Course, by Theodora Wells

Arizona Model Rape Laws

QUOTES by Hillary Rodham Clinton.

Posted 06-22-1999

Like today, the 1970s were a mixture of moving ahead and falling back:
      In its 1971 conference, the six-year-old National Organization for Women voted: "A woman's right to her own person includes the right to define and express her own sexuality and to choose her own lifestyle."
      Two years later the word "lesbian" was added.
      Pope Paul formed a commission on women in 1973 and the only American woman appointed was a 21-year-old art student Debbie Schellman from Atlanta, Georgia. Less than 10% of the commission on women were women.
      It's hard to believe but in 1975 Lt. Col. Grace King was actually dismissed as WAC Commander in Virginia for feminist activities. She was reinstated.
      Lorraine Potter of the American Baptist Church became the first women chaplain with the U.S. Air Force in 1973.
      That same year, the Southern Baptist Church adopted the following resolution at its convention in Portland, Oregon: "Man was not made for woman, but the woman for the man. Woman is the glory of man. Woman would not have existed without man." (The conference did not examine the conundrum of how men could be born without a woman.) The Southern Baptists would continue to increase the control men were to have over women through the years and even in the late 1990s, declared that women were to be obedient to men, a view that several ultra-conservative religious organizations concurred with. Several of Southern Baptist churches, however, left the conference in protest.
      At the same time, the mainstream Protestant churches were broadening women's rights and were increasing the ordination of women as clergy.

| PRIOR DATE |        | HOME |       | WOA INDEX |       | NEXT DATE |



B. 09-28(?)-1778, Suzanne Theodore Vaillande Douvillier, French dancer and pantominist. During a tour of the U.S. she probably presented the first ballet in the country.

B. 09-28-1839, Frances Willard - U.S. educator, reformer, pioneer suffragist and pacifist. FW was the heart and soul of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union which she served as president 1839 to 1898. She was founder of the World's Woman's Christian Temperance Union (1883). Although there were some objections, she broadened the WCTU's interest to not only working against the dangers of liquor addiction, but added departments that studied drugs, social health, hygiene, prison reform, international peace, and women's suffrage.
      FW helped form the National Council of Women and organized the General Federation of Women's Clubs. She was one of five women elected as the first women delegates to a Methodist General Conference and who were denied seating because of their sex. FW was the first Dean of Women at Northwestern University but forced to resign over differences with the president to whom she had been engaged.
      She was elected to the Hall of Fame for Great Americans in 1910. Her longtime secretary and companion was Anna A. Gordon.
      At one time the WCTU had 39 departments examining all facets of women's lives. Willard was adamant in her belief in women's rights and constantly reminded women that they had to make efforts themselves to improve their lot. One famous photograph shows FW learning how to ride a bicycle, a mode of transportation that she felt would give women more freedom and confidence.

B. 09-28-1856, Kate Douglas Wiggins - U.S. educator and novelist. KDW organized the first free kindergarten in the American West, but she is best known as the author of Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm (1903). Her autobiography is My Garden of Memory (1923).

B. 09-28-1872, Lena Ashwell - British actor and theatrical manager. LA was well known for her work in organizing entertainment for the troops at the front during World War I. In 1917 she was awarded the Order of the British Empire.

B. 09-28-1881, Eleanora Randolph Sears - wealthy U.S. sportswoman and eccentric. ERS was a champion squash player and was accomplished in numerous other sports including polo. ERS refused to conform to the requirement that women to wear corsets which restricted breathing under even normal conditions and especially when they engaged in sports activities. She rode horses astride, wore riding pants, and in general did what she wanted. A devoted horsewoman she persuaded the City of Boston to retain its mounted horse contingent.
      ERS was the four-times National Women's Double tennis champion in the 1911-17 period, but her tennis playing ability paled in comparison to the publicity she got when she decided to roll up her sleeves during a hectic match.
      She dared wear jodpurs onto a men's polo field to ask that she be allowed to play with the men. The shocked judges refused and a mother's club passed a resolution requesting ERS wear proper women's attire. She then took to wearing trousers almost exclusively.
      She was also a noted walker, often walking huge distances. She walked the 47 miles between Boston and Providence, RI in under ten hours.
      Her wealth allowed her to be eccentric and pursue her own ways. She also contributed huge amounts of money support various sports endeavors.

B. 09-28-1883, Sister Mary Joseph - U.S. nun. MJ was the founder (1932) and director of the Living Catholic Authors walk at Webster Groves, Missouri.

B. 09-28-1893, Hilda Geiringer - German-American scholar of applied mathematicics and a statistician. HG was about to receive the singular honor of being appointed a professor at the University of Berlin in spite of her sex when Adolph Hitler came to power. HG a Jew and a single mother fled to become professor of mathematics at the Istanbul University in Turkey. At the start of World War II HG moved to the U.S. where she lectured at Bryn Mawr, and became professor and chair of the mathematics department at Wheaton College.

B. 09-28-1894, Gladys Hill - UK physician and gynaecologist. GH who studied under Marie Curie to study the effects of radiation on patients headed the obstetrics department at one of London's largest hospitals for almost 30 years. Gaining a medical degree was difficult because only three schools would accept women in 1925 and she was very short on money, in fact, she forced herself to eat a cheap food that gave her indigestion to quiet her hunger pangs. She lived to 103 and was fully active until her death.
      GH was a contemporary at Somerville with Vera Brittain and Dorothy Sayers. She was a fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons (1936) and of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (1943). GH was a terror as an examiner and as a teacher demanded perfection, especially from women students whom she held to a higher standard.

Event 09-28-1904: New York City police arrest a woman for smoking a cigarette in public.

B. 09-28-1913, Alice Marble - U.S. tennis great and spy for the U.S. government during World War II. AM won the U.S. tennis singles championship four times, the Wimbledon once and while at her peak had her career cut short by World War II.
      Contemporary (male) sports writers described her style of play as "masculine" because she played aggressively with the aim to win instead of engaging in the polite volleying that they approved of for women. She also dared wear shorts instead of long dresses. She was named Athlete of the year by AP in 1939 and 1940 and the ranking woman tennis player from 1936 to 1940.
      Her style of rushing the net, aggressively chasing the ball changed tennis forever. She was turned to tennis by her family who disapproved of her fondness for playing baseball with boys. It was at the Golden Gate courts that she was raped by a strange man, an event that she said contributed to her toughness although it long prevented her from intimacy and left emotional scars.
      Former tennis great Eleanor "Teach" Tennant became her coach and friend and within two years of Tennant's coaching AM was nationally ranked. AM developed tuberculosis and fought her way to health with the help of Tennant and movie star Carole Lombard, one of the many movie stars who were AM's friends through the years. AM won the U.S. singles titles five times, In England she won the Wimbledon in 1939. Both in the U.S. and England she won the doubles titles numerous times with Sarah Fabyan and the mixed doubles a half dozen times with different partners from 1934 to 1940. She was ranked number one in the world 1936-1940. Her best years were truncated by World War II.
      She championed the membership of Althea Gibson in the all-white lawn tennis association.
      But her most facinating exploits were off the tennis court. During WWII she was sent to Switzerland on a spy mission for the U.S government to investigate some financial matters. She was almost killed and had to reconstruct the evidence from memory.
      AM was bisexual with well known affairs with both men and women. She married once. Her husband was killed during the war. Pregnant, AM lost a fetus in a automobile accident.
      AM was an amazing woman who had to overcome so many problems: rape, tuberculosis, widowhood, loss of a baby, etc. She had a fine singing voice and devoted many of her later years to helping young people.
      [SPECIAL FEATURE on the new laws and penalties on rape in honor of Alice Marble, the great tennis player who was raped at 15 by a strange man who was never identified is at the end of the anniversaries list.]

B. 09-28-1913, Ellis Peters - aka Edith Mary Pargeter, British author of dozens of historical novels and detective stories. EMP wrote 20 novels that featured the adventures of her most famous character Brother Cadfael who lived in the 12th century's British Isles.

B. 09-28-1915, Ethel Rosenberg - the only woman ever executed for espionage in the history of the U.S. The trial and execution is still a cause célèbre since a number of her alleged fellow conspirators got short jail terms (except her husband who was also executed).
      Both Rosenbergs maintained their innocence to the end. The seven other men involved in the case were sentenced to 15 to 30 years in prison, including the men who confessed to stealing the U.S. secrets.
      Her husband Jules, a member of the Communist party, was an engineer employed by the U.S. Army signal Corps during WWII. He and his wife, Ethel, were accused of furnishing vital information about the atomic bomb to Soviet agents in 1944 and 1945.
      The major witnesses against them was Ethel's brother, David Greenglass, an employee at the Los Alamos atomic bomb project. Greenglass testified that he fed top-secret data about nuclear weapons to the Rosenbergs and for his statements he was sentenced to only 15 years in prison. The Rosenbergs were convicted under the Espionage Age of 1917, and when they were sentenced to death, it sparked worldwide protests.
      Despite the many and varied pleas that their lives be spared, primarily because of the questionable evidence supplied by Greenglass (who saved his own life by naming the Rosenbergs), President Eisenhower refused to commute the sentence and Ethel and Jules were executed 06-19-1953.

B. 09-28 1920, Bridget Biddy Martin Grundy - UK Air Commodore. BG was the first woman to reach Air Rank with the Women's Royal Air Force apart from the director.
      Her service as a pioneer in the WAAF ranged from examining drains to a commanding officer. Her postings ranged from air bases in Ireland to intelligence. One of the great pioneers.

B. 09-28-1932, Madeleine M. Kunin - governor of Vermont.

B. 09-28-1934, Brigitte Bardot, French motion-picture actor. BB became an international sex symbol in the 1950s and 60s. She appealed to men with her pubescent-like immature pouty sex image. She became an active wildlife conservationist.

Event 09-28-1939: America's most noted woman pilot Jacqueline Cochran wrote Eleanor Roosevelt to suggest women pilots could release American men pilots for combat duty in the war that was certainly coming. It would take until July 2, 1941 for a meeting to be scheduled between JC and ER. ER then asked President Franklin Roosevelt to join the discussion. The president agreed to Cochran's plan but politics would hold up implementation of the WASP program for another year.

B. 09-28-1973, Gwyneth Paltrow, U.S. actress. GP won the 1999 Academy Award best actress award for her work in Shakespeare in Love.

| PRIOR DATE |        | HOME |       | WOA INDEX |       | NEXT DATE |


Helen of Troy

"Helen of Troy, in Greek legends, the most beautiful woman of her time. She was the daughter of King idareus, and had suitors from all parts of Greece. By advice of Ulysses, the choice was left to Helen and she opted Menelaus. Three years after this marriage, she fell in ove by Paris, the son of Priam, and fled with him Troy. The Grecian princes, in accordance with an oath that they had taken when suitors together at the court took up arms to restore to Menelaus his (wife) and the Trojan war was the consequence (about 1100 B.C.)
      "Paris was killed during the siege, and Helen returned and received her husband's forgiveness. After the death of Menelaus. she was driven into exile, and retired to Rhodes, where the queen of that island, whose husband had been killed in the Trojan war, caused her to be seized while bathing, tied to a tree, and strangled.
      "The Spartans honored her as a goddess, and built a temple to her at Therapne, which is said to have had the power of conferring beauty upon all women who entered it.
      "The abduction of Helen of Troy, and the war that followed, are the subjects of Homer's Iliad, perhaps the greatest epic poem in literature."

            -- Joseph Adelman, Famous Women, an Outline of Feminine Achievement Through the Ages with Life Stories of Five Hundred Noted Women. New York, The Pictorial Review, 1924.

      [WOA Note: More men and women know of mythical Helen and her face that launched a thousand ships than know of Mary Robinson, who is in the top echelon of the United Nations - one of the most powerful women in this world today.
      That is the power that the myths written by male historians/writers/creators of fiction whose prejudices and dreams in the less "enlightened past" still rule every woman's life today. BTW, a goodly percentage of people still believe men have one less rib because of the Biblical mistranslations regarding the creation of Eve.]

      Helen, according to the legends, was sired by Zeus who took the form of a drake (male swan). The tales vary slightly mother but they agree that Helen was the product of the rape of either Leda or Nemesis. According to most tellings, Helen betrayed her husband Paris (who was a womanizer, etc.) to his brother Menelaus who she then married and they lived happily ever after in Sparta. Most, however, ignore that she had been married to Menelaus before Paris and had even had a daughter with him. Helen's perfidy was because Aphrodite cast a spell on Helen that forced her to fall in love with Paris via the golden apple.
      Another version says that after the fall of Troy she was hanged by a queen widowed in the Trojan war and yet another says that the real Helen was left in Egypt and a false Helen sent to Troy.
      Helen was regarded as a goddess and had a festival in Laconia and a temple at Rhodes where she became Dendritis, the tree goddess.

| PRIOR DATE |        | HOME |       | WOA INDEX |       | NEXT DATE |


Female Chimps More Liberated Than Once Thought

A scientific study of female chimps published in 1997 showed that they are not pawns of the males.
      In fact, they have a great deal of control over their lives and their importance in the group depends on their female friends and relatives, not any male sex partners.
      In a 1997 report in the presigious journal Science cowritten by Jane Goodall who used her 37 years of observations of chimpanzees in Tanzania.
      Co-author Jennifer Williams from the University of Minnesota said, "[The study] actually gives you a picture of females who have a lot more control over their own lives."
      The reason the correct conclusions were slow in being recognized was that female dominance is much more subtle.
      "[Male chimps] use displays which are these big shows of how amazing and wonderful they are; they rattle trees and drag boulders down, things like that... every day, many times a day," Williams said. "Females might [only] show [signs of dominance] a couple of times a year."
      Thus the societal hierachy of male chimps was easy to spot. It took close, unprejudiced observations to see that females with high rank "managed to dominate the choice patches of food and managed to have more progeny in quicker succession than less dominant females. Their young also survived at a higher rate and their daughters matured faster," according to the scientists.
      Williams said chimp behavior is similar to human behavior, pointing out that adolescent boys are often openly obnoxious and will fight with other boys, adolescent girls will use different methods to establish status, such as shunning.
      Researchers are still not sure why certain females acquire dominance. [Based on a REUTER news dispatch 08-07-97.]

| PRIOR DATE |        | HOME |       | WOA INDEX |       | NEXT DATE |


Woman - Which Includes Man, Of Course
by Theodora Wells

The following selection is an "experience in awareness." Read and feel it slowly and deeply.
      There is much concern today about the future of man, which means, of course, both men and women-generic man. For a woman to take exception to this use of the term "man" is often seen as defensive hair-splitting by an "emotional female."
      The following experience is an invitation to awareness in which you are asked to feel into, and stay with, your feelings through each step, letting them absorb you. If you start intellectualizing, try to turn it down and let your feelings again surface to your awareness.
      Consider reversing the generic term Man. Think of the future of Woman which, of course, includes both women and men. Feel into that, sense its meaning to you - as a woman - as a man.
      Think of it always being that way, every day of your life. Feel the ever presence of woman and feel the nonpresence of man. Absorb what it tells you about the importance and value of being woman - of being man.
      Recall that everything you have ever read all your life uses only female pronouns - she, her - meaning both girls and boys, both women and men. Recall that most of the voices on radio and most of the faces on TV are women's - when important events are covered - on commercials - and on the late talk shows. Recall that you have no male senator representing you in Washington.
      Feel into the fact that women are the leaders, the power-centers, the prime-movers. Man, whose natural role is husband and father, fulfills himself through nurturing children and making the home a refuge for woman. This is only natural to balance the biological role of woman who devotes her entire body to the race during pregnancy.
      Then feel further into the obvious biological explanation for woman as the ideal - her genital construction. By design, female genitals are compact and internal, protected from outside attack to assure the perpetuation of the race. His vulnerability clearly requires sheltering.
      Thus, by nature, males are more passive than females, and have a desire in sexual relations to be symbolically engulfed by the protective body of the woman. Males psychologically yearn for this protection, fully realizing their masculinity at this time - feeling exposed and vulnerable at other times. The male is not fully adult until he has overcome his infantile tendency to penis orgasm and has achieved the mature surrender of the testicle orgasm. He then feels himself a "whole man" when engulfed by the woman. If the male denies these feeling, he is unconsciously rejecting his masculinity.
      Therapy is thus indicated to help him adjust to his own nature. Of course, therapy is administered by a woman, who has the education and wisdom to facilitate openness leading to the male's growth and self-actualzation.
      To help him feel into his defensive emotionality, he is invited to get in touch with the "child" in him. He remembers his sister's jeering at his primitive genitals that "flop around foolishly." She can run, climb and ride horseback unencumbered. Obviously, since she is free to move, she is encouraged to develop her body and mind in preparation for her active responsibilities of adult womanhood. The male vulnerability needs female protection so he is taught the less active, caring virtues of homemaking. Because of his clitoris-envy, he learns to strap up his genitals, and learns to feel ashamed and unclean because of his nocturnal emissions. Instead, he is encouraged to keep his body lean and dream of getting married, waiting for the time of his fulfillment - when "his woman" gives him a girl-child to carry on the family name. He knows that if it is a boy-child he has failed somehow - but they can try again.
      In getting to your feelings on being a woman - on being a man - stay with the sensing you are now experiencing. As the words begin to surface, say what you feel from inside you.

            -- Theodora Wells took an MBA at the University of Southern California at Los Angeles and at the University of Southern California. President of Wells Associates, a management consulting firm. She is coauthor of Breakthrough: Women into Management (1972) and Keeping Your Cool Under Fire: Communicating Non-Defensively (1980)

| PRIOR DATE |        | HOME |       | WOA INDEX |       | NEXT DATE |


Special Feature: Arizona Model Rape Laws

In honor of Alice Marble, the great tennis player who was raped at 15 by a strange man who was never identified.

In 1978, the criminal code of Arizona was revised and became a model for the nation. The word "rape" is no longer found in the code; it was replaced by "sexual assault."
      First, the definitions:     

1) "Oral sexual contact" means oral contact with the penis, vulva or anus.
      2) "Sexual contact" means any direct or indirect fondling or manipulating of any part of the genitals, anus or female breast.
      3) "Sexual intercourse" means penetration into the penis, vulva or anus by any part of the body or by any object of manual masturbatory contact with the penis or vulva.
      4) "Without consent" includes any of the following:
            a. The victim is coerced by the immediate use or threatened use of force against a person or property.
            b. The victim is incapable of consent by reason of mental disorder, drugs, alcohol, sleep or any other similar impairment of cognition and such condition is known or should have reasonably been known to the defendant.
            c. The victim is intentionally deceived as to the nature of the act.
            d. The victim is intentionally deceived to erroneously believe that the person is the victim's spouse.

And here is the exact sexual assault statute:

13-1406 Sexual assault
            A. A person commits sexual assault by intentionally or knowingly engaging in sexual intercourse or oral sexual contact with any personal without consent of such person.
            B. Sexual assault is a class 2 felony, and the person convicted is not eligible for suspension or commutation of sentence, probation, pardon, parole, work furlough or release from confinement on any other basis except as specifically authorized by [...other state statute codes...] until the sentence imposed by the court has been served. If the victim is under fifteen years of age, sexual assault is punishable pursuant to [...code again - stiffer penalty] ...weapon was used in the sexual assault or if physical injury resulted... punishment is life in prison with no chance of any kind of release until at least 25 years has been served.)

This section of the AZ criminal code also refers to spousal sexual assault which is a class 2 felony.
      As you can see, AZ's sexual assault law is gender neutral. It also includes oral sexual contact and in the definition of "sexual intercourse," includes penetration by instrument.

| PRIOR DATE |        | HOME |       | WOA INDEX |       | NEXT DATE |



      "If women don't thrive, the world won't thrive...We must do more to ensure equal rights for women, along with equal pay and equal access to health care, education, and political power... Women must be a part of the process within the UNited Nations as we search for answers, and women must continue to demand that their rights and opportunities be respected in nations around the world."

      "As long as discrimination and inequities remain so commonplace around the world -- as long as girls and women are valued less, fed less, fed last, overworked, underpaid, not schooled and subjected to violence in and out of their homes - the potential of the human family to create a peaceful, prosperous world will not be realized."
            -- Hillary Rodham Clinton, 09-05-95 at the U.N. Conference on Women, Beijing, China. The full text of her speech can be found in the WiiN library.

| PRIOR DATE |        | HOME |       | WOA INDEX |       | NEXT DATE |


© 1990, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1999, 2000
Irene Stuber, PO Box 6185, Hot Springs National Park, AR 71902.
Email istuber@undelete.org with any corrections, additions, or suggestions.
Distribute verbatim copies freely with copyright notice for non-profit use.

We are accepting donations to help offset the costs
of posting and archiving of WOA.

To receive the email versions of Women of Achievement and Herstory
email Listserv@Netcom.com
(and in the body of the note), subscribe WOAH-Herstory


Undelete: Women's Internet Information Network Inc.
A non profit organization dedicated to telling herstory.
Irene Stuber, Director.  All rights reserved.

| TOC | WOAH | About Us | Catts Claws | Exhibit Hall | Benefactors |

| Library | Search | Abigails | Irene Stuber | Military Women | Home |